three approaches to teaching
executive approach/therapist approach/liberationist approach
…professional teachers only become professionals when they reflect on and choose a stance toward their calling that guides and sustains them in their important work of educating persons…One’s approach to teaching and one’s conception of an educated person are tied together tightly.
“What will help to make us self-controlled, fair-minded or hard-working are good examples set by others, and then ourselves practising and failing, and practising again, and failing again, but not quite so soon and so on. In matters of morals, as in the skills and arts, we learn first by being shown by others, then by being trained by others, naturally with some worded homily, praise and rebuke, and lastly by being trained by ourselves”-British philosopher Gilbert Ryle
“What we know and feel about our world can have a profound impact on what we will look and listen for, what we will see, and how we will interpret what we see, feel, and hear”
Reflections about three approaches
Egan’s ideas: the first one is that the purpose of education is to “shape the young to the current norms and conventions of adult society”. We trust that evoked a remembrance of the executive approach, for that is the majority justification of this approach… This second idea (cultivating the intellectual capacities of the young), which he attributes to Plato, is akin to the liberationist approach…Egan’s third idea, the development of each student’s potential, is attributed to Rousseau, whose classic work, Emile, describes the rearing of a child in the most pristine, natural circumstances possible, to the end of having the child’s own talents and capacities emerge without the constraining effects of any system of schooling. This third idea is akin to the therapist approach to teaching. (p64)
Revised versions of three approaches
Executive approach: the dispute is whether knowledge and skill can be pre-specified for all students, so that they will acquire this knowledge and skill in some established sequence, with fairly uniform outcomes. Competence, in the best sense of the term, is certainly a worthy aim of education, a noble y in the expression. Constructivists find the views of knowledge implicit in the executive approach counter to the their conception of how children learn.
Therapist approach: fostering teacher rather than foster teacher. A fostering teacher is committed to the ends-in-view we described aforehead: the personal development of the whole child, building confidence and self-esteem, the cultivation of the authentic self, the promotion of self-actualization…The fostering teacher is concerned with the nature and quality of the relationship between him-or herself and the students.
Liberationist approach:classical liberation Vs Critical liberation(emancipation). The emancipationists contend that human reason, knowledge, and values do not come packaged nearly so neatly as the classical liberationist would have us believe.These products of the human mind, argue the critlibs, are deeply influenced by wealth, power, and prestige.
in teaching, there are different ways to conceive of the relationship you forge with your students, there are different conceptions of what knowledge is and what is involved in you and your students knowing something, and there are different views of the point and purpose of teaching. If you are aware of and understand these different conceptions, you can construct an approach to teaching that, in your considered judgement, best serves you and your students, your employer, and the parents of your students.